Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium which is urease positive, gram-negative cocci that infect the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD), chronic gastritis and stomach malignancy.
Typically, exposure to the bacteria occurs in young age especially in people who visit an unhygienic restaurant. A patient often present without any symptoms, and many may not even know that they have an infection.
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a sensation and movement (peristalsis) in the upper digestive tract. It is characterized by troublesome early satiety, fullness, or epigastric pain or burning.
This disorder is known to be functional because there are no anatomical abnormalities found to explain these features. The cause of functional dyspepsia is unknown, but excessive acid secretion, gastritis, allergic to food, psychological factors like anxiety, drugs side effects (from drugs such as NSAIDS like aspirin), lifestyle and diet influences and H. pylori infection can trigger this.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) relationship with the chronic bad breath (halitosis) and functional dyspepsia
Halitosis (bad breathing) becomes a significant social stigma and have a serious impact on a daily life. It is divided into:
- Genuine halitosis, that can be easily diagnosed.
- Pseudo-halitosis, a problem doesn’t exist and cant be detected by a test. but still, patients feel that they have bad breath.
- Halitophobia, is a situation where a patient’s perception of a breath problem continues despite successful treatment. These patients require psychological counseling.
These patients need multiple drug therapies to eradicate the H. pylori infections which include triple therapy ( 2 Antibiotics and PPI).
Then they should be re-evaluated for symptoms after 4-6 weeks of eradication therapy. Furthermore, the multiple drug regimen therapy also significantly reduces functional dyspepsia symptoms as well, such as epigastric pain, nausea, and the early feeling of fullness during meals.
In the majority of cases, the cause of halitosis is the mouth (caused by decomposing particles of food, blood, or salivary components )for which effective treatment is tooth brushing or special mouth rinses only.